Computer

The first use of the word “Computer” was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued to be used in that sense until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century onwards though, the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, describing a machine that carries out computations.

Importance

Computers have brought up a revolutionary change in the past couple of decades. They are everywhere now and are being used by everyone. They are being used in every field as they provide the facility of storing large data safely which can be easily accessed and managed. They play vital role in our daily life owing to facilities it provide which are beyond our imagination .Their wide application has made the computer education a must.

As computers are being used widely these days, gaining computer education is the need of time. One should be equipped with the basic knowledge of computers, it’s operations and applications. Both basic and practical knowledge completes the basic computer education.

Computers do not act as storage or processing devices only. They are the biggest sources of entertainment and communication as well. One can get connected to another in other part of world in no time with the help of computers. It helps in searching and retrieving vast information over internet also and only computer education can increase the applications of computer across the world.

Those coupled with computer knowledge that may be networking, programming or any other, are always preferred over others and eventually gets the better job opportunities as in modern world no business operates without computers. So computer education is extremely important now as it is an eligibility criterion for getting recruited.

Getting acquainted with computer education makes business easy as various business transactions can be made fast and safe. Also all the business records and documents can be stored in computer thus reducing the need of paper documentation. One can shop being immobile as orders can be placed on internet which saves time and transportation cost.

Various database management soft wares are available in market which manages the large amount of data as per requirement. Computers are not used for business purposes solely; they are also used for gaming and for media purposes all over the globe, thus proving its worth as a one of the main source of entertainment.

Thus we need computer literate people in order to keep pace with time and society. This is the Information Age and computers and computer education are must to rise and to achieve the ladder of success.

Objectives

Computers provide, for the first time in history, a key ingredient that was lacking in all the previous tools that raised high expectations when introduced in the educational system: individualized interactivity. From blackboard to television, the previous tools were pre- sentation tools only. Computers, however, can not only present information with all the audio-visual ex- pressive possibilities of television or film, but also can receive information from the user, and can adapt the presentation to the user needs, preferences or requests. Furthermore, in those schools where the Internet is accessible, the computer is the gateway to information without frontiers, and the catalyst for teacher and student dialogs beyond the walls of a single class or school. Today, when a major effort is being invested in the transformation of the classroom, moving away from frontal, expository, didactic presentations to environments where learners are active discoverers and builders of knowledge, the computer is the tool with the potential to help in reaching these goals the following modes and benefits are summarized briefly.

Computer-Assisted Learning

The student learns by interacting with a program stored in the computer. This program is designed to react to the student’s needs according to predetermined pedagogical criteria. In this case the student conducts a "distant dialog" with the authors of the educational program, who in a well-designed program will have considered the learning difficulties involved in the topics studied, and designed accordingly a set of remedial interventions. Enrichment units should have been included also, to attend to the interests of students who want to study in depth, beyond the curriculum requirements.

Simulation and Exploration

There are topics of study that deal with real systems whose complexity makes them hard to comprehend, operate, or predict. When we want our students to learn how to cope with such a system, the best pedagogical approach is not to provide a set of rules that describe the behavior of the system, but rather to let them explore the behavior, make decisions and predict their consequences or, in short, learn according to their own experience with the system. This is easier said than done, when the real system is a hydroelectric power station, or the economy of a nation, or a patient that requires medical treatment. Fortunately, for many real systems a computer model has been developed, i.e. the computer provides an output describing the behavior of the system, and the changes in this behavior produced by the input of diverse actions.Thus, a student may check the validity of decisions concerning the amount of water allowed to circulate in the hydroelectric power station in conditions of possible drought or flooding, or the effect on unemployment of raising taxes, or the effect of a certain therapy for a patient with given symptoms. All this without creating shortages of electric power for the population, or unemployment, or killing the patient.

Computational Tools

Teachers and students can use computer-based tools, such as text or graphic editors, databases, spreadsheets, or presentation packages, to help in processing information. Two important benefits that come to mind are: a) teachers’ can enrich their presentations with rich graphics and tables, which can be stored in their computer, easily updated, and readily accessible for presentation to the whole class by means of a projection device; b) Students’ papers may be of higher quality, particularly if, instead of just assigning a grade, the teacher requests that each paper be typed using a word processor and delivered on a diskette or through e-mail, thereby allowing the teacher to insert comments and suggestions and return it to the student for corrections until a satisfactory paper has been achieved.

Computer as a Career

Nowadays its requirement of all the major companies no matter what is field of company that all the students they hire should have a decent amount of computer education and should be well versed with its use. So it is necessary to have primary computer skills. If you pursue bachelors or masters in Computer Science, then you are the most valuable person in today’s time.

Career Path 1: Designing and Implementing Software.

This refers to the work of software development which has grown to include aspects of web development, interface design, security issues, mobile computing, and so on. This is the career path that the majority of computer science graduates follow. While a bachelor’s degree is generally sufficient for entry into this kind of career, many software professionals return to school to obtain a terminal master’s degree. (Rarely is a doctorate involved.) Career opportunities occur in a wide variety of settings including large or small software companies, large or small computer services companies, and large organizations of all kinds (industry, government, banking, healthcare, etc.). Degree programs in software engineering also educate students for this career path.

Career Path 2: Devising New Ways to Use Computers.

This refers to innovation in the application of computer technology. A career path in this area can involve advanced graduate work, followed by a position in a research university or industrial research and development laboratory; it can involve entrepreneurial activity such as was evident during the dot-com boom of the 1990s; or it can involve a combination of the two.

Career Path 3: Developing Effective Ways to Solve Computing Problems.

This refers to the application or development of computer science theory and knowledge of algorithms to ensure the best possible solutions for computationally intensive problems. As a practical matter, a career path in the development of new computer science theory typically requires graduate work to the Ph.D. level, followed by a position in a research university or an industrial research and development laboratory.

Career Path 4: Planning and Managing Organizational Technology Infrastructure.

This is the type of work for which the new information technology (IT) programs explicitly aim to educate students. Career paths 2 and 3 are undeniable in the domain of computer science graduates. Career paths 1 and 4 have spawned the new majors in software engineering and information technology, respectively, and information systems graduates often follow Career path 1, too. Computer scientists continue to fill these positions, but programs in software engineering, information technology, and information systems offer alternative paths to these careers.

Quality Perspective

Upper Primary and Secondary

Traditionally, language-learning materials beyond the initial stages have been sourced from literature: prose, fiction and poetry. While there is a trend for inclusion of a wider range of contemporary and authentic texts, accessible and culturally appropriate pieces of literature should play a pivotal role at the secondary stage of education. The English class should not be seen as a place merely to read poems and stories in, but an area of activities to develop the learner’s imagination as a major aim of language study, and to equip the learner with communicative skills to perform various language functions through speech and writing.

The general objectives at this stage are :

At the end of this stage learners will be able to do the following :

The methodology will be based on a multi-skill, activity based, learner centred approach. Care would be taken to fulfil the functional (communicative), literary (aesthetic) and cultural (sociological) needs of the learner. In this situation the teacher is the facilitator of learning, s(he) presents language items, contrives situations which motivate the child to use English for the purposes of communication and expression. Aural-oral teaching and testing is an integral feature of the teaching- learning process. The electronic and print media will be used extensively. The evaluation procedure should be continuous and comprehensive. A few suggested activities are: